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GLOSSARY
Below the acronym list you will find a short glossary of TES-specific Scientific Terms and Other Related Scientific Terms

Acronyms commonly used in the TES project

ABSCO - Absorption Coefficient
AES - Airborne Emission Spectrometer
AIRS - Atmospheric Infrared Sounder
APID - Application Process(or) Identifier
ARM - Atmospheric Radiation Measurement
ASDC - Atmospheric Science Data Center
ATBD - Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document
AVDC - AURA Validation Data Center
AVE - Aura Validation Experiment
CBP - Celestial Body Position (Toolkit)
CCB - Configuration Control Board (Change Control Board)
CCR - Configuration Change Request
CDE - Cognizant Development Engineer
CM - Configuration Management
Co-I - Co-Investigator
COTS - Commercial-Off-The-Shelf
CR-AVE - Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment
CSMS - Communications and System Management Segment (ECS)
CUC - Constant and Unit Conversion (Toolkit)
DAAC - Distributed Active Archive Center
DAO - Data Assimilation Office
DAP - Delivered Algorithm Package
DFM - Design File Memorandum
DIAL - Differntial Absorption Lidar
DID - Data Item Deliverable
DIF - Data Interchange Format
DLT - Digital Linear Tape
DN - Distribution Notice
DPR - Data Processing Request (ECS)
DPREP - Data Pre-Processing
DPS - Data Product Specification
DSS - Data Server Subsystem (ECS)
DOFS - Degrees of Freedom for Signal
DU - Dobson Units
Ebnet - EOSDIS Backbone Network
ECMWF - European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts
ECS - EOSDIS Core System
EDG - EOS Data Gateway
EDIO - External Development and Interface Office (ESDIS Project)
EDOS - EOS Data and Operations System
EDS - Expedited Data Sets
EGS - EOSDIS Ground System
ELANOR - Earth Limb And Nadir Operational Retrieval
EMSn - Earth Missions Support network
EPH - Ephemeris and Attitude Access (Toolkit)
EOC - EOS Operations Center
EOS - Earth Observing System
EOSDIS - Earth Observing System Data and Information System
ESDIS - Earth Science Data and Information System
ESDT - Earth Science Data Type
ETE - End to End
FAMS - Final Apodized Measured Spectrum
FOR - Field-Of-Regard
FOT - Flight Operation Team
FOV - Field-Of-View
FRD - Functional Requirements Document
FSV - Full State Vector
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
FTS - Fourier Transform Spectrometer
GCMD - Global Change Master Directory
GDS - Ground Data System
GMAO - Global Modeling Assimilation Office
GS - Global Survey
GSFC - Goddard Space Flight Center
GSRD - Ground System Requirements Document
HDF - Hierarchical Data Format
HDF-EOS - Hierarchical Data Format-Earth Observing System
HIRDLS - High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder
ICD - Interface Control Document
IDL - Interactive Data Language
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
IERS - International Earth Rotation Service
IFSV - Initial Full State Vector
IG - Initial Guess
ILS - Instrument Line Shape
INTEX - International Chemical Transport Experiment
IO - Input Output (Toolkit)
IO_Gen - Generic I/O (Toolkit)
I/O - Input/Output
IOT - Instrument Operations Team
IRD - Interface Requirements Document
ISO - International Standards Organization
IST - Instrument Support Terminal (Team)
JEST - Java Earth Science Tool (ECS)
JPL - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
L1A - Level 1A
L1B - Level 1B
L2 - Level 2
L3 - Level 3
LaRC - Langley Research Center
LBLRTM - Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model
LTE - Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium
LZPF - Level Zero Processing Facility
MB - Megabyte (106 bytes)
MCF - Metadata Configuration File
MCL - Master Commend Load
MEM - Memory Allocation (Toolkit)
MET - Metadata Access (Toolkit)
MLS - Microwave Limb Sounder
MMS - Mission Management System
MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MOJO - Message Oriented Java Objects (ECS)
MOPPITT - Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere
MOSS - Mission Operations and Science Systems
MOZART - Model of OZone And Related chemical Tracers
MSS - Mass Storage System (ECS)
MTD - Metadata, Time, and Date (Toolkit)
MTMGW - Machine-to-Machine Gateway
NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NCAR - National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCEP - National Center for Environmental Prediction
NCSA - National Center for Supercomputer Applications
NESR - Noise Equivalent Source Radiance, Noise Equivalent Spectral Radiance
NSIDC - National Snow and Ice Data Center
ODL - Object Description (Definition) Language
ODT - One Day Test
OMI - Ozone Monitoring Instrument
OSP - Operational Support Product
PAN - Product Acceptance Notification
PC - Process Control (Toolkit)
PCF - Process Control File
PDPS - Production Data Processing System
PDR - Product Delivery Record; Preliminary Design Review
PDRD - Product Delivery Record Discrepancy
PDS - Production Data Set
PEM - Project Element Manager
PGE - Product Generation Executive
PH - Production History
PI - Principal Investigator
POSIX - Portable Operating System Interface (IEEE)
PCT - Process Control tools (Toolkit)
PSA - Product Specific Attribute
PVL - Parameter Equals Value
QA - Quality Assessment
RLE - Run Length Encoding
SC - Spacecraft
SCF - Science Computing Facility
SDP - Science Data Processing
SDPS - Science Data Processing System
SIPS - Science Investigator-led Processing System
SI - SSoftware Interface Specification
SITP - System Integration and Test Plan
SMF - Status Message Facility (Toolkit)
SMP - Software Management Plan
SOT - Single Orbit Test
SSIT - Science Software Integration and Test
SPD - SSI&T Procedures Document
SRD - Software Requirements Document
SS - Step & Stare
SSAP - Science Software Archive Package
SSH - Secure Shell
STP - Software Test Plan
TAI - International Atomic Time
TATM Atmospheric Temperature
TBD - To Be Determined
TBS - To Be Supplied
TCO - Tropospheric column ozone
TD - Time and Date (Toolkit)
TES - Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer
TK - Toolkit
TR - Transect
TSUR - Surface temperature
TWPR - TES Working Prototype Retrieval
UR - Universal Reference (ECS)
URL - Universal Resource Locator
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VMR - Volume Mixing Ratio
V0 - Version 0 (EOSDIS)
ZPD - Zero Path Difference

TES-specific Scientific Terms [Return to top]

Averaging kernel matrix - This matrix defines the relative contribution of each element of the true state to the estimate at a particular pressure (or altitude). Reported TES profiles contain a mixture of regions where the measurement was sensitive to the chemical abundance in the atmosphere and regions where the retrieval has reverted back to the climatology, and the averaging kernel is vital to understanding the locations of the sensitivity. The amount of vertical sensitivity varies with changes in the cloud properties of the observed footprint and the thermal properties of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. The structure of the TES averaging kernel reveals information on the altitude of chemical species within the troposphere.

DOFS - The Degrees of Freedom for Signal is the number of unknowns that can be independently retrieved from the measurements. The averaging kernel matrix is used to compute the number of DOFS of the retrieval. DOFS vary by latitude, and are the metric calculated to quantify TES vertical sensitivity to real atmospheric variability.

Jacobian matrix - The sensitivity of the measured spectral radiance with respect to the retrieved parameters (for TES this includes ozone, temperature, water and surface properties).

Other Related Scientific Terms [Return to top]

El Niño event - El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the most important mode of interannual variability in the tropical atmosphere and has a strong influence on the distribution of tropospheric ozone in the tropics. During an El Niño event, the normally warm waters and associated convection over the western Pacific and maritime continent, move towards the eastern Pacific.

Ozone photolysis - Degradation of ozone by sunlight, in which tropospheric OH is produced. OH acts as a sink for a number of important gases. Mapping the lower atmosphere is critical because OH production peaks at 1 - 3 km altitude.

Pressure broadening - In the lower atmosphere, at higher pressure, molecules collide with each other and slightly alter the wavelength of absorption.

Radiative forcing - The change in the balance between solar radiation entering the atmosphere and the Earth's radiation going out. On average, a positive radiative forcing tends to warm the surface of the Earth while negative forcing tends to cool the surface. Radiative forcing is measured in Watts per square meter, which is a measure of energy.

Wavenumber - Wavelengths in the mid-infrared are typically expressed in micrometers (commonly called microns), where one micron is 10-6 meters. Another typical unit in the mid-infrared is the wavenumber. The wavenumber is proportional to frequency and is expressed in units of cm-1. In other words, the wavenumber is the number of waves in 1cm.